Introduction
What is LaTeX?
LaTeX, pronounced “latek,”
is a text formatter. Unlike word processors like
Microsoft Word, LaTeX is not a “what you see is what you
get” editor. Instead, the user writes LaTeX code representing
the content and desired formatting. LaTeX then compiles this code to
produce a formatted document. The typical writing and editing cycle
with LaTeX is
 Write LaTeX code
 Compile
 View output
 Return to Step 1 for editing
Why should I use it?
Disadvantages:
 Less intuitive than word processors
 Many commands to learn
 Time lost to debugging LaTeX code

Advantages:
 Automatic numbering of sections, citations, etc.
 Beautiful math formulas with fine control
 Fine control over spacing
 Packages and userdefined macros

LaTeX is a professional typesetting tool providing great control,
particularly with math formulas. However, it does take patience to
learn. If none of this is appealing, LaTeX is not for
you.
What tools does this require?
LaTeX code is plain text, so any text editor will suffice.
To compile LaTeX code, a TeX system with LaTeX is
necessary. Two free TeX systems available for download are MikTeX for Windows and teTeX for UNIX. Third, a viewer
program is necessary to view the output. LaTeX typically outputs
DVI, PS, or PDF format files. Adobe
Reader can view PDF files and the Ghostscript + Ghostview
system can view all three formats.
Note: There is more than one version of LaTeX. This guide
is specifically for LaTeX 2ε, however, most features
should also apply to other versions.
Although not strictly necessary, it is a good idea to use a spell
checker. Two free spell checkers are Aspell and Ispell.
LaTeX Basics
The structure of a LaTeX document is a preamble followed by a
body:
\documentclass[options]{class}
Preamble: Global commands, settings, and macro definitions
\begin{document}
Body: Text and local commands
\end{document}
The \documentclass line specifies the general options like
paper size and default font size and the type or “class” of
document. The preamble is used to include packages, set global
parameters like margin widths, and define macros. The body is mostly
plain text with occasional commands for special symbols, changing
fonts, or other formatting.
 All characters may be used
directly except # $ & ~ _ ^ % { } \, which have special
meaning.
 The special characters # $ & ~ _ ^ % { } may
be printed by prefixing \, for example, \& to print
&.
 All commands are \ followed by a sequence of
letters, for example, \textbf for writing in
bold face.
For example, the body text
You can get this \textbf{amazing product} for
only \$49.99!
compiles to
You can get this amazing product for only $49.99!
Hello, LaTeX World!
LaTeX is best learned through experience. Get started with this exercise:
demo.tex
\documentclass[12pt]{article}
\begin{document}
The \#1 story is that this article was compiled today (\today) with
\LaTeX. To try some commands, it includes \textit{a few fancy}
\textbf{fonts}.
\end{document}
 Copy the code above into a text editor and save it as
demo.tex.
 Compile it with LaTeX. With teTeX or MikTeX,
the command latex demo.tex produces a DVI file, which can then be
converted to PS with dvips demo.dvi or to PDF with
dvipdf demo.dvi.
 View the output PS or PDF file.
Fonts
As demonstrated with \textbf, text is written in another face
by using a command with the text enclosed in curly braces { }.
Bold face 
\textbf{...} 
Typewriter 
\texttt{...} 
Italics 
\textit{...} 
Underlined 
\underline{...} 
Slanted 
\textsl{...} 
Font commands may be nested, for example,
\textbf{super \textit{stylish}} yields super stylish.
Line, Paragraph, and Page Breaks
LaTeX ignores single line breaks in the code. To force a line break
within a paragraph, use two backslashes \\. To indicate a
paragraph break, use two line breaks:
Code:
In 1812, Bessel was elected to the Berlin Academy and won an award
from the academy a few years later for estimations of precession and
aberration constants. In 1825, he was elected as a Fellow of the
Royal Society.
In 1830, Bessel published his calculations for the positions of 38
stars over the years 17501850. In 1838, he determined that the star
Sirius has a companion star, Cygni, and calculated its position. The
star was later observed in 1862, verifying his conjecture.
Output:
In 1812, Bessel was elected to the Berlin Academy and won an award
from the academy a few years later for estimations of precession and
aberration constants. In 1825, he was elected as a Fellow of the
Royal Society.
In 1830, Bessel published his calculations for the positions of 38
stars over the years 1750–1850. In 1838, he determined that the star
Sirius has a companion star, Cygni, and calculated its position. The
star was later observed in 1862, verifying his conjecture.
To add a blank line between two paragraphs, use \bigskip:
Code:
In 1812, Bessel was elected to the Berlin Academy and won an award
from the academy a few years later for estimations of precession and
aberration constants. In 1825, he was elected as a Fellow of the
Royal Society.
\bigskip
In 1830, Bessel published his calculations for the positions of 38
stars over the years 17501850. In 1838, he determined that the star
Sirius has a companion star, Cygni, and calculated its position. The
star was later observed in 1862, verifying his conjecture.
Output:
In 1812, Bessel was elected to the Berlin Academy and won an award
from the academy a few years later for estimations of precession and
aberration constants. In 1825, he was elected as a Fellow of the
Royal Society.
In 1830, Bessel published his calculations for the positions of 38
stars over the years 1750–1850. In 1838, he determined that the star
Sirius has a companion star, Cygni, and calculated its position. The
star was later observed in 1862, verifying his conjecture.
LaTeX determines intelligent page breaking automatically
(avoiding problems like orphan lines), but it is occasionally
necessary to manually indicate page breaks. To force a page break,
use the command \pagebreak. To prevent a page break, use
\nopagebreak.
Math in LaTeX
A math formula can be written within a line of text (text
style), or apart on its own line (display style). Text
style math is enclosed with dollar signs: $ ... $.
Display style math is enclosed with either \[ ... \]
or double dollar signs $$ ... $$. The enclosed code
is called the formula text.
Basic Symbols
Many math symbols are intuitively
represented in the formula text. For example, $f(x) > 2M$
produces the formula f(x) > 2M.

Letters, numbers, and the symbols +  / = < > :  ( ) [ ]
work directly.
 Spaces between these symbols has no effect. $
x + y $ and $x+y$ have the same output.
 To produce
curly braces { }, use \{ and \}.
Superscripts and Subscripts
Superscripts and subscripts are made using ^ and
_. For example, $x^2 + y^2$ yields
x^{2} + y^{2}. A symbol can have both a
superscript and a subscript: $A_n^k$ yields
A_{n}^{k}.
 If a superscript or subscript has multiple symbols, it must be enclosed
with { }, for example, $Y_{2n}$ to produce
Y_{2n}.
 If a superscript or subscript is enclosed with { }, it can itself
have superscripts and subscripts.
Fractions
Graphical fractions are made with \frac{ numerator }{ denominator }. The formula
\[ \frac{1}{x^2 + y^2} \] produces
Sums, Products, and Integrals
The commands \sum, \prod, and \int produce
these three features. They usually have upper and lower limits, which
are added like superscripts and subscripts. For example,
\[ \sum_{k=0}^N \] to produce
Functions
The standard style in math typesetting is to use italics on
variables and Roman font on function names. LaTeX provides commands
to display some common functions in Roman font, including
\arccos 
\cos 
\exp 
\log 
\sin 
\arcsin 
\cot 
\inf 
\max 
\sup 
\arctan 
\csc 
\lim 
\min 
\tan 
For example, $sin(x)$ generates sin(x) while
$\sin(x)$ generates sin(x). For other functions not in
this list, force Roman font with
\mathrm{function name}.
Parenthesis
The formula text \[ \exp( \frac{x^2}{2} ) \] has output
To generate parenthesis with the correct size, use the \left
and \right commands. The \left command is placed in
front of the opening parenthesis and the \right command is
placed with the matching closing parenthesis. Correcting the example
formula, \[ \exp\left( \frac{x^2}{2} \right) \] has output
 \left and \right must appear in pairs.
 They may also be used with other bracket symbols, including
[ ] { } .
 The bracket symbols need not match, \left\{
... \right is legal.
 To produce a single opening or closing bracket, make the other
bracket invisible with \left. or \right..
Greek and Special Symbols
LaTeX provides an extensive set of math symbols. Symbols are
represented with \ followed by the symbol name:
α 
\alpha 
κ 
\kappa 
υ 
\upsilon 
Ξ 
\Xi 
β 
\beta 
λ 
\lambda 
φ 
\phi 
Π 
\Pi 
γ 
\gamma 
μ 
\mu 
χ 
\chi 
Σ 
\Sigma 
δ 
\delta 
ν 
\nu 
ψ 
\psi 
Υ 
\Upsilon 
ε 
\epsilon 
ξ 
\xi 
ω 
\omega 
Ψ 
\Psi 
ζ 
\zeta 
π 
\pi 
Γ 
\Gamma 
Φ 
\Phi 
η 
\eta 
ρ 
\rho 
Δ 
\Delta 
Ω 
\Omega 
θ 
\theta 
σ 
\sigma 
Θ 
\Theta 

ι 
\iota 
τ 
\tau 
Λ 
\Lambda 

± 
\pm 
→

\rightarrow 
≠ 
\ne 
∃ 
\exists 
∞ 
\infty 
⇒ 
\Rightarrow 
≡ 
\equiv 
∀ 
\forall 
≤ 
\le 
⇔ 
\Leftrightarrow 
≈ 
\approx 
∈ 
\in 
≥ 
\ge 
∴ 
\therefore 
∼ 
\sim 
∉ 
\not\in 
There are many more if you need them.
Spacing
Sometimes formulas need manual adjustments to space symbols properly.
A “quad” is the length equal to the font size, for example,
1 quad = 11 pt with 11 pt font size. These commands add horizontal
spacing:
\, 
3/18 quad space 
\quad 
1 quad space 
\: 
4/18 quad space 
\qquad 
2 quad space 
\; 
5/18 quad space 
\! 
−3/18 quad negative space 
Use the small space command \, to adjust where symbols are a
little too close. Use the negative space command \! to
squeeze together symbols that are otherwise too far apart. Multiple
negative spaces \!\!\! can be used to squeeze further.
For larger spaces, use \quad and \qquad.
Normal Text within a Formula
It is frequently necessary
to write normal text within a math formula, particularly single words
and short phrases like “if” and “such that.” This can be
done with \mbox{ normal text }. For
example,
\[ f(x_0) = f(x_1) \qquad \mbox{if and only if}
\qquad x_0 = x_1 \]
produces
f(x_{0}) =
f(x_{1}) if and only if
x_{0} = x_{1}
Math Fonts
It is sometimes useful for notation to use another font than the
standard, for example, writing vectors in boldface. The following
commands change the font of the math they enclose
Roman 
\mathrm{...} 
Bold 
\mathbf{...} 
Typewriter 
\mathtt{...} 
Sans serif 
\mathsf{...} 
Italic 
\mathit{...} 
Calligraphic 
\mathcal{...} 
The normal math font is forced with \mathnormal{...}.
Typesetting differentials
When a differential precedes or follows other symbols, insert
a small space with \,. For example,
$\int \phi(x) \,dx$ to produce
∫ f(x) dx
rather than
∫ f(x)dx.
Exercise
See if you can reproduce the following formula:
Document Structure
LaTeX offers commands for creating title pages, numbered sections,
bibliography, and other features necessary in a structured document.
Title Page
To create a title page, write the following commands at the beginning
of the body text:
\title{title text}
\author{author \\ institute \\ address}
\maketitle
Depending on settings, it may be necessary to include these commands
to begin page numbering after the title page:
\thispagestyle{empty}
\newpage
\setcounter{page}{1}
Abstract
Write an abstract with
\begin{abstract} abstract text \end{abstract}
Sections
Sections are labeled and automatically numbered with the commands
\part
\chapter
\section
\subsection
\subsubsection
Use the command
\sectioncommand{title} to
create a section with heading text title. Use
\sectioncommand*{title} to
omit numbering. For example, a research article could be structured
Code:
\section{Introduction}
...
\subsection{Previous Work}
...
\section{Background}
...
\section{Theory}
...
\subsection{Main Theorem}
...
\subsection{Implications}
...
\section{Experiments}
...
\section{Conclusion}
...

Outline:
 Introduction
 Previous Work

Background
 Theory
 Main Theorem
 Implications
 Experiments
 Conclusion

Table of Contents
The command \tableofcontents produces a table of contents
based on the section commands. When sections are added, change order,
or if a section heading appears on a different page, the LaTeX code
must be compiled twice to create the table of contents correctly.
Bibliography and Citations
A bibliography is structured
\begin{thebibliography}{samplelabel}
\bibitem{key 1}entry text 1
\bibitem{key 2}entry text 2
...
\end{thebibliography} 
Each \bibitem command represents an entry in the
bibliography. The entry text is the actual bibliographic
information (author, title, publication, etc.). The key
argument is a keyword for referring to the entry. To cite the
entry within the text, use the command
\cite{key}. The samplelabel argument
is simply to indicate the number of digits in the largest label.
If there are between 10 and 99 entries, use 99.
An example bibliography:
Code:
\begin{thebibliography}{99}
\bibitem{Heijmans} H. Heijmans and J. Goutsias. ``Nonlinear
Multiresolution Signal Decomposition SchemesPart II: Morphological
Wavelets.'' \textsl{IEEE Transactions on Image Processing}, 2000.
\bibitem{Do} M. Do, \textsl{Directional Multiresolution Image
Representations}, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Communication Systems,
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne, 2001.
...
\end{thebibliography}
Output:
References
[1] 
H. Heijmans and J. Goutsias. “Nonlinear
Multiresolution Signal Decomposition Schemes–Part II: Morphological
Wavelets.” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 2000.

[2] 
M. Do, Directional Multiresolution Image
Representations, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Communication Systems,
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne, 2001.


... 
The text
For
background on contourlets, see \cite{Do}.
produces
For
background on contourlets, see [2].
Closing
You now have the knowledge to begin using LaTeX. Be aware that
this guide is only a quick introduction to the most useful features
of LaTeX. Beyond this guide, other
LaTeX features and package features
you may want are

• Tables, lists, footnotes, figures 


• Defining your own macros 


• AmSLaTeX math extensions 
(amsmath) 

• Color, drawings, import graphics 
(color, tikz, graphicx, ...) 

• Multicolumn page layout 
(multicol) 

• Presentation slides 
(beamer and others) 

• Listing code with syntax
highlighting 
(listings) 

• Hyperlinks 
(hyperref) 

• Strikeout and various underlining
styles 
(ulem) 